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TEST IN DISEASES

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TEST IN DISEASES

Cardiovascular

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Cardiovascular disease is estimated to be the leading cause of death and loss of disability-adjusted life years.

Vitamin D deficiency treatment

The amount of vitamin D that is needed to correct a deficiency will depend on the severity of the deficiency. When the blood level is below 30 ng/mL, a minimum of 1,000 IU/day of vitamin D3 will be needed for children and 1,500 to 2,000 IU/day of vitamin D3 for adults. Another rule of thumb is for every 1 ng/mL increase in your blood level you need an additional 100 IU/vitamin D per day. A task force for the Endocrine Society reviewed the research and made the following recommendations:

 

  • For children 1-18 years of age who are vitamin D deficient, we suggest treatment with 2,000 IU/d of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 for at least six weeks or with 50,000 IU of vitamin D2 once a week for at least six weeks to achieve a blood level of 25(OH)D above 30 ng/ml, followed by maintenance therapy of 600-1,000 IU/day.
  • We suggest that all adults who are vitamin D deficient be treated with 50,000 IU of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 once a week for eight weeks or its equivalent of 6,000 IU of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 daily to achieve a blood level of 25(OH)D above 30 ng/ml, followed by maintenance therapy of 1,500-2,000 IU/day.
  • In obese patients, patients with malabsorption syndromes, and patients on medications affecting vitamin D metabolism, we suggest a higher dose (two to three times higher; at least 6,000-10,000 IU/day) of vitamin D to treat vitamin D deficiency to maintain a 25(OH)D level above 30 ng/ml, followed by maintenance therapy of 3,000-6,000IU/day.

 

For optimal absorption, you want to take your supplement with the meal that contains the most fat. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin and requires fat for absorption. A recent study instructed people to take their supplement with their largest meal (typically the one with the most fat), and in three months, their blood levels went up an average of 56.7%.

Diabetes

Abha Diagnostics offer two diabetes health check packages that empower your doctors to understand your diabetes conditions better and advise you the right medicines and lifestyles changes. Go for the one that meets your current health needs and keep your diabetes in check.

Autoimmune Diseases

Your body's immune system protects you from disease and infection. But if you have an autoimmune disease, your immune system attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Autoimmune diseases can affect many parts of the body.

No one is sure what causes autoimmune diseases. They do tend to run in families. Women - particularly African-American, Hispanic-American, and Native-American women - have a higher risk for some autoimmune diseases.

There are more than 80 types of autoimmune diseases, and some have similar symptoms. This makes it hard for your health care provider to know if you really have one of these diseases, and if so, which one. Getting a diagnosis can be frustrating and stressful. Often, the first symptoms are fatigue, muscle aches and a low fever. The classic sign of an autoimmune disease is inflammation, which can cause redness, heat, pain and swelling.

BMI Test

Body Mass index (BMI) is used to give you an idea of whether you're underweight, overweight or an ideal weight for your height. 
It's useful to know because if your weight increases or decreases outside of the ideal range, your health risks may increase.

Immune system diseases

The job of the immune system — which is a collection of structures and processes within the body — is to protect against disease or other potentially damaging foreign bodies. When functioning properly, the immune system identifies a variety of threats, including viruses, bacteria and parasites, and distinguishes them from the body’s own healthy tissue.

Disorders of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer.

Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is not as strong as normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections.

In humans, immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease such as severe combined immunodeficiency, acquired conditions such as HIV/AIDS, or through the use of immunosuppressive medication.

On the opposite end of the spectrum, autoimmunity results from a hyperactive immune system attacking normal tissues as if they were foreign bodies.

Common autoimmune diseases include Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type 1 and systemic lupus erythematosus.

Asthma and allergies also involve the immune system. A normally harmless material such as grass pollen, food particles, mold or pet dander is mistaken for a severe threat and attacked.

While symptoms of immune diseases vary, fever and fatigue are common signs that the immune system is not functioning properly.

Blood Sugar Test

Blood sugar (glucose) test is a blood test that screens for diabetes by measuring the level of glucose (sugar) in a person’s blood. 
It can be an important tool in managing your treatment plan and preventing long-term complications of diabetes like cardiovascular diseases, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy.

ST2

The burden of cardiovascular disease in India

Recent evidence has reported the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) to be 50% to 400% higher in Asian Indians than individuals of other ethnic origins. In addition, some 30% to 40% of cardiovascular deaths occur between 35 and 64 years of age. An estimated 9.2 million productive years of life were lost to cardiovascular disease in India in 2000, a number that is expected to increase to nearly 18 million by 2030 (10 times the rate in the U.S.). The prevalence of heart failure in India due to coronary heart disease, hypertension, obesity, diabetes and rheumatic heart disease to range from 1.3 to 4.6 million, with an annual incidence of 491 600-1.8 million.

Biomarkers in cardiology: The current gold standard and its limitations

Several biomarkers are in use for diagnosis, monitoring and prognostication of cardiovascular disorders. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) represent the current gold standard with respect to biomarker applications in cardiology. While the NPs are the present (and likely future) gold standards, limitations for their current use exist. Neither BNP nor NT-proBNP is perfect tool for prognostication, and their levels are affected by many other conditions in addition to heart failure. Furthermore, other conditions associated with adverse outcomes, including progressive myocardial necrosis, inflammation and fibrosis, are all present in varying degrees among patients with heart failure; and neither BNP nor NT-proBNP can identify them. Thus, the development and use of biomarkers to better understand the complex pathophysiology in heart failure will be necessary to compliment BNP and NT-proBNP.

A novel promising biomarker for monitoring and prognosis of heart failure patients

In this regard it is noteworthy to mention ST2 which is a widely accepted biomarker for prognosis and risk stratification of heart failure patients and is highly specific to the cardiac tissue. sST2 protein is independent of traditional factors, such as age and BMI, which usually affect levels of NT-proBNP

ST2 (for growth STimulation expressed gene 2; also known as IL1RL1, or Interleukin 1 Receptor-Like 1) is a member of the interleukin 1 receptor family. The ST2 protein has two isoforms directly implicated in the progression of cardiac disease: a soluble form (referred to as soluble ST2 or sST2) and a membrane-bound receptor form (referred to as the ST2 receptor or ST2L).

The ligand for ST2 is the cytokine Interleukin-33(IL-33). Binding of IL-33 to the ST2 receptor, in response to cardiac disease or injury, such as an ischemic event, elicits a cardioprotective effect resulting in preserved cardiac function.

This cardioprotective IL-33 signal is counter-balanced by the level of soluble ST2, which binds IL-33 and makes it unavailable to the ST2 receptor for cardioprotective signaling. As a result, the heart is subjected to greater stress in the presence of high levels of soluble ST2, leading to cellular death and tissue fibrosis, reduced cardiac function, and increasing the rate of disease progression.

Multiple published studies have demonstrated that the level of ST2 in blood can help a physician better predict a patient's prognosis, and thus make better treatment decisions than solely employing clinical parameters and existing laboratory assays.

Cholesterol Test

Cholesterol test is a blood test carried out to measure the levels of total cholesterol found in various lipids (LDL-bad cholesterol, HDL-good cholesterol, VLDL) in the blood. 
Evaluation of total cholesterol in conjunction with triglycerides is carried out in order to determine a person’s risk of developing cardiovascular disease (heart disease or stroke).

Thyroid

Thyroid diseases are one of the commonly occurring endocrine disorders worldwide. Thyroid disorders are conditions that affect the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck below the Adam's apple.

Tuberculosis Test

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that is spread through the air from one person to another. There are two kinds of tests that are used to determine if a person has been infected with TB bacteria: the tuberculin skin test and TB blood tests. 
While the former test only tells whether a person has been infected with TB bacteria, the later tells whether the person has latent TB infection (LTBI) or has progressed to TB disease. For direct diagnosis of TB, visualization of the bacteria is done in the sample (AFB smear) and the sample is cultured to grow the bacteria in controlled media. Drug susceptibility test of the bacteria can be performed during the culture process. For rapid diagnosis of drug resistant TB (MDR and XDR) an advanced molecular test, Line Probe Assay (Hain test) is available. Several PCR based molecular tests are also available for TB diagnosis. Of late a sensitive WHO endorsed molecular test in the name of GeneXpert has been introduced in the market. The test detects not only Mycobacteria tuberculosis but also drug resistance against rifampicin in a single test.

CBC Test

Complete Blood Count (CBC) is a blood test used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide range of disorders, including anemia, infection and leukemia.

It measures red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets along with average red blood cell size (MCV), hemoglobin amount per red blood cell (MCH), and amount of hemoglobin relative to the size of the cell (hemoglobin concentration) per red blood cell (MCHC)

HbA1c Test

HbA1c test is the gold-standard measurement of chronic glycemia and gives a picture of your average blood glucose (blood sugar) control over a period of 3 months. It shows how well you are controlling your diabetes.

ESR Blood Test

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) is a blood test that measures inflammation or abnormal proteins in the body. 
While ESR is not an indication of any one disease, it commonly increases with any condition that causes inflammation, such as infection, arthritis, or cancer.

SGPT Test

SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) test also known as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test is measured to see if the liver is damaged or diseased due to cirrhosis or hepatitis caused by alcohol, drugs, or viruses.

ECG Test

Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a test that records the heart's electrical activity. ECG is used to detect and study many heart problems, such as heart attacks, arrhythmias, and heart failure along with other disorders that affect heart function.

Osteoporosis Test

Lifestyle

Reduced consumption of tobacco and alcoholWeight bearing and resistance exercises

Nutrition

Adequate vitamin D and vitamin k supplementation in post menopausal women. Balanced diet with optimum levels of calcium.

Medications

Bisphosphonates are useful in decreasing the risk of future fractures in those who have already sustained a fracture due to osteoporosis. This benefit is present when taken for three to four years under strict medical supervision. Alendronate may decrease fractures of the spine

Teriparatide ( a recombinant parathyroid hormone ) has been shown to be effective in treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.Some evidence also indicates strontium ranelate is effective in decreasing the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Hormone replacement therapy, while effective for osteoporosis, is only recommended in women who also have menopausal symptoms.Raloxifene, while effective in decreasing vertebral fractures, does not affect the risk of nonvertebral fracture. Denosumab is also effective for preventing osteoporotic fractures. In hypogonadal men, testosterone has been shown to improve bone quantity and quality, but, as of 2008, no studies evaluated its effect on fracture risk or in men with a normal testosterone levels.Calcitonin while once recommended is no longer due to the associated risk of cancer with its use and questionable effect on fracture risk.

Prevention

Certain drugs like alendronate, etidronate, risedronate, raloxifene and strontium ranelate can be helpful for the primary prevention of osteoporotic fragility fractures in postmenopausal women

Urine Test

Urine test checks different components and properties of urine. It provides information to assist in the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of a wide range of diseases.

It can determine whether or not a woman is ovulating or pregnant. Urine can also be tested for a variety of substances relating to drug abuse.

Arthritis Treatment

There are several classes of arthritis medications that work to control arthritis symptoms, prevent joint damage, and improve mobility and function. Basically, there are 5 categories of arthritis medications: NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), analgesics (painkillers), corticosteroids, DMARDs (disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs), and the newer biologics

NSAIDs have anti-inflammatory, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-pyretic (fever-reducing) properties. The drugs can cause potentially serious side effects. Patients must weigh benefits and risks of taking NSAIDs. Analgesics are a class of drugs used to relieve pain. The pain relief induced by analgesics occurs either by blocking pain signals going to the brain or by interfering with the brain's interpretation of the signals, without producing anesthesia or loss of consciousness.

Corticosteroids are drugs closely related to cortisol, a hormone which is naturally produced in the adrenal cortex. However, as the use of corticosteroids expanded over the years, significant side effects emerged. They are still used (orally and by injection) to knock down inflammation.

DMARDs (disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs) appear to decrease inflammation, though they are not categorized as anti-inflammatory drugs. DMARDs slow the disease process by modifying the immune system.

Biologic response modifiers (biologics) stimulate or restore the ability of the immune system to fight disease and/or infection. For example, TNF-alpha is one of the most important cytokines involved in rheumatoid arthritis through its entanglement in the cascade of inflammatory reactions. Pain serves as the signal that something is wrong in the body. Chronic pain can interfere with daily living. It is important to find ways to manage pain and minimize its negative impact. There are both pharmacologic (drug) and non-pharmacologic options to learn about and try. Always consult your doctor before trying a new treatment. In addition to medications, physical exercise and physiotherapy also play a crucial role.

Cortisol Test

Cortisol test is done to measure the level of the hormone cortisol in the blood. It is done to find problems of the pituitary gland or adrenal glands, such as making too much or too little hormones.